Tag Archive | 2008

Reporting sexual harassment: Claims and remedies

Title: Reporting sexual harassment: Claims and remedies

Link: pdf

Summary: (abstract)

Sexual harassment has been documented as a widespread and damaging phenomenon yet the specific patterns of behaviour reported in alleged sexual harassment cases and the factors influencing the lodgement of formal, legal complaints have received little attention. This two-stage study explored 632 cases of sexual harassment reported to a community advocacy organisation in Queensland, Australia. Two kinds of sexual harassment are distinguished: quid pro quo harassment (an exchange for sexual favours) and hostile environment harassment (sustained unwelcome overtures). Only 10 per cent of specialised assistance cases involved quid pro quo harassment, with the remainder categorised as hostile environment claims, including sexual remarks, physical contact and sexual gestures. Organisational responses to many of the allegations of sexual harassment were inadequate. The seriousness of many claims was also concerning, although the gravity of the harassment was not closely linked with the likelihood of a complaint being formally lodged. Most cases in one of three state/Commonwealth commissions involved a conciliation conference and financial settlement, averaging A$5289. The study has implications for women’s equal opportunity. Among these, the study suggests that complaints encountered long delays and received small settlements incommensurate with harm. This suggestion recognises the needs to search for other solutions to sexual harassment.

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There’s a Policy for That: a Comparison of the Organizational Culture of Workplaces Reporting Incidents of Sexual Harassment

Title: There’s a Policy for That: a Comparison of the Organizational Culture of Workplaces Reporting Incidents of Sexual Harassment

Link: pdf

Summary: (abstract)

It has been more than 25 years since the Equal Employment Opportunity  Council first published guidelines on sexual harassment. In response, many companies developed policies and procedures for dealing with harassment in their workplaces. The impact of sexual harassment policies on changing workplace culture has been met with mixed findings. The current study investigates the environmental differences or organizational cultures of companies holding formal sexual harassment policies using organizational level data (2002 National Organization Survey). Logistic regressions compared organizations with and without formal complaints on organizational structure, worker power, and interpersonal climate variables. Findings indicated the importance of negative interpersonal climate variables (threatening, bullying, and incivility) in differentiating companies who experience formal complaints of sexual harassment from those that do not.

The Hairlessness Norm Extended: Reasons for and Predictors of Women’s Body Hair Removal at Different Body Sites

Title:  The Hairlessness Norm Extended: Reasons for and Predictors of Women’s Body Hair Removal at Different Body Sites

Link: http://www.springerlink.com/content/jl7rk8m44k78lg1g/

Summary: (abstract)

The study aimed to explore the motivations behind and predictors of the practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 235 Australian female undergraduate students completed questionnaires asking about the frequency and reasons for body hair removal, as well as measures of media exposure. It was confirmed that the vast majority (approximately 96%) regularly remove their leg and underarm hair, most frequently by shaving, and attribute this to femininity and attractiveness reasons. A sizeable proportion (60%) also removed at least some of their pubic hair, with 48% removing most or all of it. Here the attributions were relatively more to sexual attractiveness and self-enhancement. Further, having a partner and exposure to particular forms of media predicted pubic hair removal. It was concluded that pubic hair removal is currently different in connotation from leg or underarm hair, but is likely to be on the increase. It can only further the belief that women’s bodies are unacceptable the way they are.

Double-blind review favours increased representation of female authors.

Title: Double-blind review favours increased representation of female authors.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17963996

Summary: (abstract)

Double-blind peer review, in which neither author nor reviewer identity are revealed, is rarely practised in ecology or evolution journals. However, in 2001, double-blind review was introduced by the journal Behavioral Ecology. Following this policy change, there was a significant increase in female first-authored papers, a pattern not observed in a very similar journal that provides reviewers with author information. No negative effects could be identified, suggesting that double-blind review should be considered by other journals.

Phantom Penises in Transexuals

Title: Phantom Penises in Transexuals

Linkhttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/imp/jcs/2008/00000015/00000001/art00001

Summary: (abstract)

How the brain constructs one’s inner sense of gender identity is poorly understood. On the other hand, the phenomenon of phantom sensations– the feeling of still having a body-part after amputation–has been much studied. Around 60% of men experience a phantom penis post-penectomy. As transsexuals report a mismatch between their inner gender identity and that of their body, we wondered what could be learnt from this regarding innate gender-specific body image. We surveyed male-to-female transsexuals regarding the incidence of phantoms post-gender reassignment surgery. Additionally, we asked female-to-male transsexuals if they had ever had the sensation of having a penis when there was not one physically there. In post-operative male-to-female transsexuals the incidence of phantom penises was significantly reduced at 30%. Remarkably, over 60% of female-to-male transsexuals also reported phantom penises. We explain the absence/presence of phantoms here by postulating a mis-match between the brain’s hardwired gender-specific body image and the external somatic gender. Further studies along these lines may provide penetrating insights into the question of how nature and nurture interact to produce our brain-based body image.

More Than “Just a Joke”: The Prejudice-Releasing Function of Sexist Humor

Title: More than “Just a Joke”: The Prejudice-Releasing Function of Sexist Humor

Link: http://psp.sagepub.com/content/34/2/159.short

Summary: (abstract)

The results of two experiments supported the hypothesis that, for sexist men, exposure to sexist humor can promote the behavioral release of prejudice against women. Experiment 1 demonstrated that hostile sexism predicted the amount of money participants were willing to donate to a women’s organization after reading sexist jokes but not after reading nonhumorous sexist statements or neutral jokes. Experiment 2 showed that hostile sexism predicted the amount of money participants cut from the budget of a women’s organization relative to four other student organizations upon exposure to sexist comedy skits but not neutral comedy skits. A perceived local norm of approval of funding cuts for the women’s organization mediated the relationship between hostile sexism and discrimination against the women’s organization.

The Enjoyment of Sexist Humor, Rape Attitudes, and Relationship Aggression in College Students

Title: The Enjoyment of Sexist Humor, Rape Attitudes, and Relationship Aggression in College Students

Link: http://www.springerlink.com/content/g451601664828vh1/

Summary: (abstract)

The current study tested Freud”s (1905/1960) theory that sexist humor may be associated with hostility toward women and extended previous research showing a link between hostile humor and aggression. Colleges students (N = 399 — approximately 92%white, 5% African American, and 3% other minorities) rated 10 sexist jokes on their perceived funniness. Results showed that the enjoyment of sexist humor was positively correlated with rape-related attitudes and beliefs, the self-reported likelihood of forcing sex,and psychological, physical, and sexual aggression in men. For women, the enjoyment of sexist humor was only positively correlated with Adversarial Sexual Beliefs and Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence. Women also found the jokes to be less enjoyable, less acceptable, and more offensive than the men, but they were not significantly less likely to tell thejokes.

The effects of women’s cosmetics on men’s approach

Title: The effects of women’s cosmetics on men’s approach

Link: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6894/is_1_10/ai_n28518814/?tag=content;col1

Summary:

The predictions were supported by the results of this experiment. Makeup of the female-confederates was associated with higher male contact and a shorter latency for the first contact. These results obtained in a real social setting were congruent with the data obtained from studies on impression formation conducted in the laboratory (Cash, Dawson, Davis, Bowen & Galumbeck, 1989; Cox & Glick, 1986; Graham & Jouhar, 1981; Nash, Fieldman, Hussey, Leveque and Pineau, 2006; Mulhern, Fieldman, Hussey, Leveque & Pineau, 2003; Workman & Johnson, 1991). These results seem to show that the positive effects of make-up on ratings of physical or social attractiveness found in the studies cited here translate to more overt behaviors of males.

One might ask why cosmetic use is associated with courtship behavior. Perhaps the effect of makeup is not to enhance physical attractiveness per se, but to serve as a cue to males that “this female might be available.” McKeachie (1952) reported data indicating that young women were evaluated by young male students as more frivolous and more interested in the opposite sex when wearing makeup than when not.