Title: The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory
This article develops and tests a refined feminist theory of rape. The author proposes that the short-term effect of gender equality is an increased rape rate via increased threats to the status quo, whereas the long-term effect of gender equality is reduced rape rates via an improved social climate toward women. Using panel data for 109 U.S. cities over three decades-1970, 1980, and 1990-the author’s expectations are generally confirmed. Because measures of inequality are used, supportive cross-sectional coefficients are negative and supportive lagged coefficients are positive. In the short term, gender inequality reduces the rape rate, whereas in the long term, higher levels of gender inequality are associated with higher levels of rape. Gender inequality in income, education, access to high-status occupations, and legal status are each positively associated with the change in rape in at least one change period (1970 to 1980, 1980 to 1990, and 1970 to 1990).
Title: Contemporary Sexism and Discrimination: The Importance of Respect for Men and Women
Three studies supported the proposal that one important aspect of contemporary sexism is greater respect for men than for women and that this differential respect has a unique role to play in mediating hiring discrimination, distinct from gender stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, participants in a hiring paradigm evidenced bias favoring men on both respect ratings and hiring recommendations. Moreover, higher respect for male than for female applicants accounted for hiring discrimination. Some evidence that gender stereotypes contributed to hiring discrimination also emerged but it was weaker and less consistent. In Study 3, respect was shown to have a causal effect on hiring recommendations for a high-status job. It is suggested that a focus on respect for men and women could complement currently popular stereotyping perspectives on sexism and discrimination.