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Mentoring and Promotions with Men and Women

Title:  Why Men Still Get More Promotions Than Women

Link: http://hbr.org/2010/09/why-men-still-get-more-promotions-than-women/ar/1

Summary:

Are women as likely as men to get mentoring? Yes.

They’re actually more so: In the 2008 Catalyst survey, 83% of women and 76% of men say they’ve had at least one mentor at some point in their careers. Indeed, 21% of women say they’ve had four or more mentors, compared with 15% of men.

Does mentoring provide the same career benefits to men and women? No.

Among survey participants who had active mentoring relationships in 2008, fully 72% of the men had received one or more promotions by 2010, compared with 65% of the women.

Do men and women have the same kinds of mentors? No.

In 2008, 78% of men were actively mentored by a CEO or another senior executive, compared with 69% of women.

More women than men had junior-level mentors: 7% of women were mentored by a nonmanager or a first-level manager, compared with 4% of men.

Though both groups had more male than female mentors on balance, 36% of women had female mentors, whereas only 11% of men did.

Women in Management: Delusions of Progress

Title: Women in Management: Delusions of Progress

Link: http://hbr.org/2010/03/women-in-management-delusions-of-progress/ar/1

Summary:

The accepted message on gender disparity in the workplace has for the past 10 to 15 years been one of acknowledgment and reassurance: Yes, women represent just 3% of Fortune500 CEOs and less than 15% of corporate executives at top companies worldwide, but give it time. It’ll change. After all, women also make up 40% of the global workforce, with double-digit growth in certain countries. They’re earning advanced professional degrees in record numbers and in some areas surpassing men. Companies have implemented programs to fix structural biases against women and support their full participation in leadership. Women are finally poised to make it to the top, the argument goes. Not yet, but soon.

If only that were true. New research by our firm, Catalyst, shows that among graduates of elite MBA programs around the world—the high potentials on whom companies are counting to navigate the turbulent global economy over the next decade—women continue to lag men at every single career stage, right from their first professional jobs. Reports of progress in advancement, compensation, and career satisfaction are at best overstated, at worst just plain wrong.

Understanding the Predatory Nature of Sexual Violence

Title: Understanding the Predatory Nature of Sexual Violence

Link: pdf

Summary: 

There is no domain of crime and violence as fraught with misunderstanding and misconception as that of sexual violence. Perhaps the most telling indication of the degree to which sexual violence is viewed through multiple veils of myth is the following paradox: In the hierarchy of violent crimes, as measured by sentencing guidelines, rape typically ranks only second to homicide, and in some cases it ranks even higher

Such sentencing structures serve as a message from the community: “we view rape as an extremely serious crime.” At the same time, however, the number of rapes that are actually prosecuted is a tiny fraction of the number committed in any year. Between two-third’s and three quarters of all rapes are never reported to the criminal justice system, and among those that are reported, attrition at various levels dramatically reduces the number of actual prosecutions. Ultimately, only a tiny handful of rapists ever serve time for rape, a shocking outcome given that we view rape as close kin to murder in the taxonomy of
violent crime.

What’s in a name?

Title:  What’s in a name? Study shows that workplace discrimination begins long before the job seeker shows up for an interview

Link: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DXK/is_9_20/ai_104521293/?tag=content;col1

Summary:

Dr. Marianne Bertrand, a professor of economics at the University of Chicago, and Dr. Sendhil Mullainathan, MacArthur-winning associate professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, have made a significant contribution to the research literature with their new study, “Are Emily and Brendan More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination.”

With names chosen from birth records in Chicago and Boston, the researchers crafted sets of resumes–some of higher quality, some of lower–labeled them with either “White-sounding” or “Black-sounding” names and sent nearly 5,000 of them out in response to 1,300 jobs advertised in the Chicago and Boston papers.

The response from colleagues as they designed their deceptively simple study was, “‘Oh, yes, you’ll find a discrimination effect, a reverse discrimination effect,'” Bertrand says.

Instead, they found that resumes with “White-sounding” names–like Jay, Brad, Carrie and Kristen–were 50 percent more likely than those with “Black-sounding” names to receive a callback. The results were striking, holding both for jobs at the lower end of the spectrum–cashier and mailroom clerk positions–and for those at the executive level. Put another way, a White job seeker would have to send out at least 10 resumes to receive a single contact from a potential employer. A Black candidate, meanwhile, would have to send out 15–and this in a “soft” economy with a relatively low rate of new job creation.

Blind Orchestra Auditions Better For Women

Title: Blind Orchestra Auditions Better For Women

Link: http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/A94/90/73G00/index.xml

Summary:

Efforts to conceal the identities of musicians auditioning for spots in symphony orchestras significantly boost the chances of women to succeed, a new study co-authored by a Princeton University economist suggests.

Traditionally, women have been underrepresented in American and European orchestras. Renowned conductors have asserted that female musicians have “smaller techniques,” are more temperamental and are simply unsuitable for orchestras, and some European orchestras do not hire women at all. Proving discrimination in hiring practices, however, has been difficult.

The study by Cecilia Rouse, an associate professor in Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and the economics department; and Claudia Goldin, a professor of economics at Harvard University, seems to confirm the existence of sex-biased hiring by major symphony orchestras and illustrates the value of blind auditions, which have been adopted by most American symphonies. Their report is published in the September-November issue of the American Economic Review.

“This country’s top symphony orchestras have long been alleged to discriminate against women, and others, in hiring,” Rouse said. “Our research suggests both that there has been differential treatment of women and that blind auditions go a long way towards resolving the problem.”

Meet the Predators: review of Lisak/Miller and McWhorter

Title: Meet the Predators

Link: http://yesmeansyesblog.wordpress.com/2009/11/12/meet-the-predators/

Summary:

First, the stranger-force rape is a small proportion of rapes, and is all but absent from the samples of self-reporters. Other research** shows that lack of prior acquaintance and use of the weapon are the only significant factors that increase the likelihood that a victim will report the offense. Attacking strangers with force or weapons is the only pattern of victimization at all likely to lead to incarceration of the rapist, let’s face it — so those who commit rape in the way that follows the script may be already in jail, not in college or the Navy filling out surveys. The rapists who are out there are mostly using intoxication, and mostly attacking victims they know.

Second, the sometimes-floated notion that acquaintance rape is simply a mistake about consent, is wrong. (See Amanda Hess’s excellent takedown here.) The vast majority of the offenses are being committed by a relatively small group of men, somewhere between 4% and 8% of the population, who do it again … and again … and again. That just doesn’t square with the notion of innocent mistake. Further, since the repeaters are also responsible for a hugely disproportionate share of the intimate partner violence, child beating and child sexual abuse, the notion that these predators are somehow confused good guys does not square with the data. Most of the raping is done by guys who like to rape, and to abuse, assault and violate. If we could get the one-in-twelve or one-in-25 repeat rapists out of the population (that is a lot of men — perhaps six or twelve million men in the U.S. alone) or find a way to stop them from hurting others, most sexual assault, and a lot of intimate partner violence and child abuse, would go away. Really.