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Fraternal Bonding in the Locker Room: a Profeminist Analysis of Talk About Competition and Women

Title: Fraternal Bonding in the Locker Room: a Profeminist Analysis of Talk About Competition and Women

Link: pdf

Summary:

Analyzes locker-room conversations to determine origins of sexism in male-bonding conversations.

Sexual Harassment Law: Has It Gone Too Far, or Has the Media

Title: Sexual Harassment Law: Has It Gone Too Far, or Has the Media

Link: pdf

Summary: 

Discusses false perceptions of “too much” sexual harassment law, and how the balance has shifted “too far” in employees’ favor.

 

Our Prisons, Ourselves: Race, Gender and the Rule of Law

Title: Our Prisons, Ourselves: Race, Gender and the Rule of Law

Link: pdf

Summary: 

Prison rape is a canard of popular culture. Comedians from Jay Leno to street-corner wiseguys recycle the tired joke: “Don’t drop the soap,” or some big, scary criminal will make you his “bitch.” This jocular fear is often racialized: “A running joke throughout movies concerns the theme in which a very large Black male prisoner threatens a boy . . . [who may be] raped or ‘punked’  by a Mike Tyson-esque character.” These jokes reveal one of men’s starkest fears about prison: that they will be unmanned or “made gay” by being sexually assaulted by a big black man.

Between Scylla and Charybdis: the Perils of Reporting Sexual Harassment

Title: Between Scylla and Charybdis: the Perils of Reporting Sexual Harassment

Links: pdf

Summary: 

Judicial opinions on sexual harassment portray reporting as the only reasonable course of action for the woman who finds herself the target of sexual harassment in the workplace. The hazards of reporting rarely are discussed, because the law assumes that employers are objective, nondiscriminating entities that do not tolerate harassment in the workplace and that employers’ and victims’ interests coincide. Nothing is further from the truth. Reporting does not solve the harassment problem within an organization, because reporting is a solution to an individual problem. Harassment is not an individual problem; it is an organizational problem.

 

Reporting sexual harassment: Claims and remedies

Title: Reporting sexual harassment: Claims and remedies

Link: pdf

Summary: (abstract)

Sexual harassment has been documented as a widespread and damaging phenomenon yet the specific patterns of behaviour reported in alleged sexual harassment cases and the factors influencing the lodgement of formal, legal complaints have received little attention. This two-stage study explored 632 cases of sexual harassment reported to a community advocacy organisation in Queensland, Australia. Two kinds of sexual harassment are distinguished: quid pro quo harassment (an exchange for sexual favours) and hostile environment harassment (sustained unwelcome overtures). Only 10 per cent of specialised assistance cases involved quid pro quo harassment, with the remainder categorised as hostile environment claims, including sexual remarks, physical contact and sexual gestures. Organisational responses to many of the allegations of sexual harassment were inadequate. The seriousness of many claims was also concerning, although the gravity of the harassment was not closely linked with the likelihood of a complaint being formally lodged. Most cases in one of three state/Commonwealth commissions involved a conciliation conference and financial settlement, averaging A$5289. The study has implications for women’s equal opportunity. Among these, the study suggests that complaints encountered long delays and received small settlements incommensurate with harm. This suggestion recognises the needs to search for other solutions to sexual harassment.

There’s a Policy for That: a Comparison of the Organizational Culture of Workplaces Reporting Incidents of Sexual Harassment

Title: There’s a Policy for That: a Comparison of the Organizational Culture of Workplaces Reporting Incidents of Sexual Harassment

Link: pdf

Summary: (abstract)

It has been more than 25 years since the Equal Employment Opportunity  Council first published guidelines on sexual harassment. In response, many companies developed policies and procedures for dealing with harassment in their workplaces. The impact of sexual harassment policies on changing workplace culture has been met with mixed findings. The current study investigates the environmental differences or organizational cultures of companies holding formal sexual harassment policies using organizational level data (2002 National Organization Survey). Logistic regressions compared organizations with and without formal complaints on organizational structure, worker power, and interpersonal climate variables. Findings indicated the importance of negative interpersonal climate variables (threatening, bullying, and incivility) in differentiating companies who experience formal complaints of sexual harassment from those that do not.

The Role of “Real Rape” and “Real Victim” Stereotypes in the Police Reporting Practices of Sexually Assaulted Women

Title: The Role of “Real Rape” and “Real Victim” Stereotypes in the Police Reporting Practices of Sexually Assaulted Women

Link: pdf

Summary: 

Some feminists have argued that rape myths constrain women’s reporting of sexual assault to the police. The authors investigated whether myth-associated characteristics of sexual assaults play a role in police reporting behaviors of women. A sample of 186 sexual assault cases seen at a hospital-based sexual assault care center in 1994 was analyzed using logistic regression. A positive association was found between reporting a sexual assault to the police and two overtly violent components of the “real rape” myth: the use of physical force and the occurrence of physical injury.

Barriers to Reporting Sexual Assault for Women and Men: Perspectives of College Students

Title: Barriers to Reporting Sexual Assault for Women and Men: Perspectives of College Students

Link: pdf

Summary:

Barriers found to reporting rape: (1) shame/guilt, (2) confidentiality, (3) fear of not being believed, (4) fear of being judged as gay (male victims), (5) fear of retaliation (female victims)

Just Say No? The Use of Conversation Analysis in Developing a Feminist Perspective on Sexual Refusal

Title: Just Say No? The Use of Conversation Analysis in Developing a Feminist Perspective on Sexual Refusal

Link: http://das.sagepub.com/content/10/3/293.abstract

Summary: (abstract)

This article aims to show the value of conversation analysis for feminist theory and practice around refusal skills training and date rape prevention. Conversation analysis shows that refusals are complex conversational interactions, incorporating delays, prefaces, palliatives, and accounts. Refusal skills training often ignores and overrides these with its simplistic prescription to `just say no’. It should not in fact be necessary for a woman to say `no’ in order for her to be understood as refusing sex. We draw on our own data to suggest that young women are able explicitly to articulate a sophisticated awareness of these culturally normative ways of indicating refusal, and we suggest that insistence upon `just say no’ may be counterproductive insofar as it implies that other ways of doing refusals (e.g. with silences, compliments, or even weak acceptances) are open to reasonable doubt. Finally we discuss the implications of our use of conversation analysis for feminist psychology, both in relation to date rape and more generally.

Understanding the Predatory Nature of Sexual Violence

Title: Understanding the Predatory Nature of Sexual Violence

Link: pdf

Summary: 

There is no domain of crime and violence as fraught with misunderstanding and misconception as that of sexual violence. Perhaps the most telling indication of the degree to which sexual violence is viewed through multiple veils of myth is the following paradox: In the hierarchy of violent crimes, as measured by sentencing guidelines, rape typically ranks only second to homicide, and in some cases it ranks even higher

Such sentencing structures serve as a message from the community: “we view rape as an extremely serious crime.” At the same time, however, the number of rapes that are actually prosecuted is a tiny fraction of the number committed in any year. Between two-third’s and three quarters of all rapes are never reported to the criminal justice system, and among those that are reported, attrition at various levels dramatically reduces the number of actual prosecutions. Ultimately, only a tiny handful of rapists ever serve time for rape, a shocking outcome given that we view rape as close kin to murder in the taxonomy of
violent crime.

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